Management of Reproduction in dairy animals is the key element in the success of any dairy enterprise small or big. Producing one calf each year from a cow/ buffalo is the dream of every dairy farmer and achievement of this dream is really challenging. With the advent of AI with frozen semen, the scenario has become more challenging. Successful reproduction management is an outcome of many critical and coherent events. Early sexual maturity of heifers, expression of overt estrus symptoms by animals, heat detection by the farmer, timely insemination with disease free semen following SOPs, maintenance of pregnancy till full term, normal calving resulting in a normal and healthy calf, after calving, the animal again starts cycling etc. are some of the critical events. Disruption at any point of this cycle will affect the reproduction of the animal and thereby will affect milk production.
Artificial insemination using cryopreserved semen is an established and the most effective reproductive biotechnology, which has reached the farmers so far. However, there is still long way to go in terms of Artificial Insemination (AI) delivery system considering the low AI coverage in the country moderate conception rates. Keeping pace with the targeted increase in coverage, there is need of increasing production of disease free semen from bulls of high genetic merit. The reproductive biotechnology has produced numerous technologies in the course of its development like embryo transfer, in vitro fertilization, sexing of semen etc. There is need for adopting these technologies in our country for enhancement of milk production. However, before widespread dissemination, many such technologies need pilot studies and standardization to suit to our situations. Finally, all the efforts in the direction of reproduction should be concomitant with better nutrition of the animals as balanced nutrition is prerequisite for successful reproduction management.